Added: Quana Fuchs - Date: 14.05.2022 01:47 - Views: 33653 - Clicks: 8272
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Most of the substances extracted from herbs, in old centuries were at the centre of religious ceremonies of ancient civilizations. Currently, these herbal products are mainly sold by internet web sites and easily obtained since some of them have no legal restriction.
The PubMed database was searched using the following key. These herbal products, mainly coming from South America or Asia where this material has traditionally been used since ancient times, recently increased their popularity. Unfortunately, at the moment there are no data about the of persons consuming herbal highs nor about relevance of consumption on the online market or in dark market just because information, diffusion and selling are made anonymously, by web forums and as mentioned earlier mainly by dark internet.
Nevertheless, similarly to many synthetic drugs, plant and herbal supplements used recreationally can show a broad spectrum of euphoric, stimulant, and mainly hallucinogenic effects. Even if abuse liability is not a crucial point for these products, serious adverse effects can occur after consumption, due also to the false perception that these products are safe, legal, and organic. Currently, an established definition of herbal highs does not exist. Conversely, the pharmacological identity of legal highs often resembles substances legally controlled i.
The plant can contains one or more active component that, per seundergoes to drug law policy. However, it can occur that the plant or part of it are not included, and can be considered legal. There are several web sites where it is possible obtain herbal products anonymously and with a very low control level. Specifically, we focused on the psychoactive effects and neuropharmacology of: Ayahuasca; Argyreia nervosa, Ipomea violacea and Rivea corymbosa, Catha edulis, Datura stramonium, Piper methysticum, Mitragyna speciosa, Hallucinogenic cacti from Trichocereus family, Salvia divinorum and Tabernanthe iboga.
Relevant scientific articles were searched from Medline, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar, up to March using the following keywords: herbal highs, Ayahuasca; Argyreia nervosa, Ipomea violacea and Rivea corymbosa; Catha edulis; Datura stramonium; Piper methysticum; Mitragyna speciosa; Trichocereus cacti; Salvia divinorum and Tabernanthe iboga and the known active principles of the above reported plants plus pharmacology, neuro-pharmacology and psychoactive effects.
Then, the references of each found article were revised to find other information relative to the searched plant. Psychotria viridis containing the hallucinogenic active principle dimethyltryptamine DMT [ 6 ]. Even if the above reported plants are most commonly used to prepare the beverage, Mimosa hostilisMimosa tenuiflora Anadenanthera peregrina : Pilocarpus organensisAcacia obtusifolia are also employed as a font of DMT whereas Peganum Harmala and Passiflora or Passion flowers as font of harmala alkaloids [ 6 ].
Ayahuasca is usually prepared by boiling or soaking parts of the above reported plants [ 6 ]. Psychedelic effects of Ayahuasca are dose-dependent. Their onset takes generally minutes after oral intake and may last approximately hours. Conversely adverse effects include untoward effects include fear, paranoia, disequilibrium, coma up to death [ 10 ]. Although the endogenous presence of DMT in brain tissue is recognized, its biological function remains a mystery [ 11 ]. At central nervous system receptor level, DMT interacts with serotonergic neurotransmission due to its structural similarity with the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT Furthermore, DMT is an agonist for 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors sites [ 12 ].
Furthermore, similar to the classical psychedelics, i. It has been shown that psychedelic 5-HT2 agonists stimulate the expression of genes encoding transcription factors, such as egr-1 and egr-2 [ 13 ]. These transcription factors have been implicated in synaptic plasticity and in some aspects of reasoning, such as memory and attention [ 14 - 16 ].
DMT also interacts with the intracellular sigma-1 receptor promoting neural plasticity through dendritic spine formation, trace amine associated receptor and vesicle monoamine and serotonin transporters [ 17 - 19 ]. It has been postulated that whereas DMT action on 5-HT2 receptors is responsible for acute effects induced by Ayahuascachanges in transcription factors may affect changes in personality observed in long-term users of Ayahuasca [ 20 ].
It was shown that repeated exposure to Ayahuasca could cause structural differences in the posterior cingulate cortex, and consequently a shift in attitudes and interests towards less materialistic values and superior open-mindedness. It is also plausible that the antidepressant effects recently reported for Ayahuasca are partly mediated by agonism on sigma-1 receptor, an effected shared with some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluvoxamine [ 21 ]. These substances not only inhibit MAOs enzymes, but also act as the inhibitors of the serotonin transporter [ 22 ].
Argyreia nervosa also called Hawaiian Baby Woodrose, Adhoguda or Vidhara, Elephant Creeper and Woolly Morning Glory is a perennial climbing vine with pink flowers, native to the Indian subcontinent and introduced to numerous areas worldwide, including, Africa, Subtropical America, and Europe. The two botanical varieties are Nervosa and Speciosa ; for both, the whole plant has been used in traditional ayurvedic medicine [ 23 ].
Leaves of the plant have antibacterial and antimicrobial activity, roots are used in rheumatism, gonorrhea, chronic ulcer and diseases of nervous system. The plant is also used as a tonic, diuretic and aphrodisiac, and has been shown to have hypoglycemic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities [ 2425 ].
It has been described that the plant seeds named ololiuqui and tlitliltzin have been used in divinatory ceremonies because of their hallucinogenic properties by the native Americans [ 26 ]. Rivea corymbosa Christmasvine, Christmaspops, and snakeplant is a perennial climbing vine too with white flowers, native throughout Latin America from Mexico as far south as Peru and widely naturalized elsewhere.
The plant has been used both in the traditional medicine and in religious rituals with respect to the hallucinogenic mushrooms like the peyote [ 26 ]. Indeed, the divinatory hallucinogenic properties of these three climbing vines are due to psychoactive alkaloids exclusively present in the plants seeds. The principal psychoactive alkaloids identified in the seeds are ergine lysergamide, lysergic acid amide, LSA and isoergine, compounds able to induce psychoactive effects like those from lysergic acid diethylammide LSDbut with fewer intensity [ 2728 ].
Whereas the seeds of Argyreia nervosa contain about 0. Lysergic acid alkaloids were ly isolated only from mushrooms of the Claviceps, Penicillium or Rhizopus family [ 3233 ]. It has been shown that a 2 to 5 mg dose of ergine is requested for the hallucinogenic action [ 3233 ].
The alkaloid seems to inhibit adenylate cyclase and reduce cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation by activating the dopamine receptors D2 [ 34 ]. LSA has psychomimetic effects mind alterations, hallucinatory perceptions and state of awareness similar but times less powerful to LSD, that persist for about hours.
The ingestion of seeds could lead to serious psychotic adverse effects, like dissociative reactions and schizophrenic relapses. The literature has described some cases of toxic psychosis characterized by hallucinations, orientation problems, anxiety, and psychomotor agitation after the ingestion of Argyreia nervosa seeds [ 3536 ]. A recent study highlighted the variable adverse effects in subjects after ingestion of equal doses of Argyreia nervosa seeds with interindividually highly differing reactions in type and intensity.
The study concluded that fluctuating alkaloid contents in seeds and multi-drug intoxications make the use of this legal high far more dangerous than commonly believed [ 37 ]. It is commonly called khat, qat or chat [ 38 ]. The principal psychoactive components of khat are cathinone and cathine. Cathinone, - aminopropiophenone is a chemically labile compound and in a short time after khat leaves harvesting it is transformed to the non-pharmacologically active 3,6-dimethyl-2,5-diphenylpyrazine.
It is for this reason that khat needs to be consumed while still fresh. During maturation, cathinone is enzymatically converted to cathine 1S, 2S-norpseudoephedrineThe two substances are chemically and pharmacologically related to amphetamines and more in general to phenetilamines. Similarly to amphetamine, cathinone-induced psycho-stimulation is mediated primarily via the meso-striato—cortico limbic dopaminergic pathway [ 39 ].
Furthermore, cathinone was shown to inhibit the re-uptake of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in animal models [ 39 ]. However, like in case of domaminergic stimulation, cathinone is a threefold less potent than amphetamine in causing serotonin release [ 40 ]. Although the psychostimulatory effects of khat appear to be completely explained by the action of cathinone, other plants alkaloids are likely to contribute to plant effects. Indeed, at peripheral level cathine shows the same simphathomimetic effects as cathinone, even if its action on central nervous system appears negligible because of its less lipophilic properties [ 41 ].
The recreational effects of khat are commonly obtained by chewing the fresh vegetable plant parts stems, leaves and flower budsalthough khat can be also ingested as an infusion or smoked. Typically, — g of khat leaves wrapped as a bundle in banana leaves are consumed in a session, and its effects last for several hours [ 42 ]. Khat chewing is a traditional habit in eastern Africa and Arabian peninsula, but the influx of immigrants from these countries has resulted in the importation of khat to countries where these immigrants have settled, including Europe and the United States [ 43 ].
Moreover, several internet websites sell and ship fresh khat leaves everywhere [ 44 ]. When chewing khat, cathinone is released producing a feeling of euphoria [ 46 ]. Cathinone also reduces appetite through an unknown mechanism [ 47 ]; other effects include increased blood pressure associated with a rise in the occurrence of vasospasms, acute myocardial infarction, unfavorable cardiovascular effects and also problems related to the gastrointestinal tract: esophagitis, gastritis [ 48 ].
Many cases of acute liver failure and many cases of autoimmune hepatitis among consumers of Catha edulis have also been reported [ 49 ]. The fact that in recent decades the traditional habit of chewing khat leaves changed towards uncontrolled consumption generated a of reports of psychiatric disorders following plant use. Different forms of psychosis, hallucination, depression and personality disorders have been associated with long-term khat use [ 50 ].
In reality, as in case of other psychotropic drugs, khat is likely to exacerbate pre-existing psychological disorders, or it is used by individuals vulnerable to overcome stress caused by the same disorders [ 50 ]. The characteristics of psychoses following khat use are very similar to those seen in chronic amphetamine and cocaine addicts [ 51 ].
There have been reports of khat-induced aggressive verbal outbursts and violent behaviour in the past, and also a recent work describes the presence of disruptive and violent behaviour amongst chronic khat users [ 5253 ]. Datura stramonium contains a mixture of anticholinergic alkaloids, e.
However, as Datura owns a narrow range between the active and lethal dose, it has been widely documented its accidental poisoning, particularly in contaminated food [ 58 ]. Among the most commonly reported desired effects, euphoria, surreal interactions with world and auditory hallucinations have been frequently reported by recreational users. After oral intake, the effects may arise in around minutes, depending on the dose; whilst if smoked, the effects are faster around 5 minutes.
After the intake of moderate doses, the effects last approximately hours; while higher doses may also last days. Datura seeds and flowers are usually more potent than the leaves and roots. Scopolamine and atropine are anticholinergic hallucinogens which competitively act by inhibiting acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, which in turn excite dopaminergic neurons at the peripheral level of the parasympathetic nervous system and at the central nervous system level. Parasympaticolytic effects include:1 spasmolytic effect bronchial smooth musculature ; 2 midriasis and paralysis of the visual accommodation; 3 decrease of the secretory activity of the exocrine glands; 4 tachycardia; 5 suppression of nausea and vomiting [ 60 ].
Several cases of toxicity following voluntary and recreationally ingestion of Datura extract were reported, particularly among children and teenagers [ 596162 ]. At higher doses, it may cause incoherent speech, disorientation, delusions, dreamlike frenzy, often followed by depression and amnesia; in some cases, a sudden surge in strength, energy and subsequent aggressive compulsions [ 59 ]. Deep coma and convulsions may occur as well [ 62 ]. Moreover, peripheral nervous system symptoms may appear, including mydriasis, dry skin and mouth, urinary retention, blurred vision, inability to perspire, hyperpyrexia and constipation [ 54 ].
Finally, even fatalities related to the intake of Datura stramonium were reported, mainly due to its accident consumption [ 64 - 66 ]. Kava-kava or Sakau or Kawa Kawa, ava root, awa, cavain, gea, gi is the name given to a typical beverage prepared with Piper methysticuma plant belonging to the black pepper family, originating from Melanesia and then rooted in the Polinesian islands [ 67 ].
In the past kava-kava played an important role in different religious and political ceremonies, and still today it is consumed to restore the physical resistance, help sexual performances, acts as an aphrodisiac, alleviate stomach pain and many other indispositions. In some western societies, kava-kava is used as a prescription-free alternative to the benzodiazepines to relieve stress-induced anxiety and insomnia [ 68 ].
If taken in little doses, kava-kava produces a sensation of wellbeing, sharpens the intellectual faculties and makes difficulties easier to take. When it is used at medium doses, it acts as a muscular relaxant and as spasmolytic producing a quiet and pacifying sleep, rich in pleasant dreams. High doses lead a deep sleep [ 6970 ].
The clinical effects of kava-kava are related to a group of structurally-related, lipophilic compounds known as kavalactones or kavapyroneswith kavain representing the most important one [ 7172 ]. Facial turgidity, hematuria, macrocitic anaemia, ataxia, increased patellar reflexes, weight and hair loss, cutaneous eruptions, dyspnea, vision problems, hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal troubles, allergic cutaneous reactions, headache, photosensitivity, asthenia, agitation, drowsiness and tremors have been associated with chronic consumption of Piper mesthycum in high doses [ 7677 ].
Numerous reports of severe hepatotoxicity potentially induced by kava-kava have also been highlighted, both in the USA and Europe [ 49 ]. Kava-kava effects can be improved by the assumption of other substances acting on the central nervous system, like alcohol and certain medicaments, leading to a temporary reduction of the cognitive performance or to a partial loss of conscience.
On the other side, Piper methysticum can interact with the metabolism of numerous drugs by inhibiting certain isoforms of cytochromes P, leading to higher risk of side effects [ 7879 ]. Recently it has been described a case of suicide due to overdose of kavalactones using intravenous.
Mitragyna speciosa Kratom is an original tree belonging to the Rubiaceae family i. In Thailand, the natives have always used the plant for its effects similar to those of opioids and cocaine. Fresh leaves from the central rib are usually chewed; dried leaves can be chewed generally after mincing or pulverizing or smoked; both fresh and dried leaves can be boiled for a long time to prepare a paste-like compound that can be kept for a long time.
At present, the dried and pulverized kratom leaves are used as legal stimulants or, instead of analgesics for its euphoric sedative effects [ 82 - 85 ]. Kratom preparations contain over 40 structurally related alkaloids, making their pharmacological and toxicological evaluation unique and difficult. The main psychoactive components in the leaves are the alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine both found only in Mitragyna speciosabut other analogues have been identified e.
The effects of Kratom in humans are dose-dependent since small doses produce stimulatory effects resembling the stimulant effect of drugs such as cocaine or amphetamines, while larger dosages tend to be associated with sedative-narcotic effects that resemble drugs such as opiates [ 818587 ]. As above reported, mitragynine is the principal alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa. Chemically, mitragynine is the 9-methoxy-corynantheidine.
The molecule is structurally related to both yohimbine the stimulant alkaloid of Pausinystalia yohimbe plant and to voacangine the alkaloid of Voacanga africana. The molecular structure is somewhat similar to psilocibine type or LSD psychedelic drugs [ 8889 ]. It seems that the alkaloids content can change according to the geographical area, phases of the plant growth, and year seasons [ 8990 ].
Moreover, since mitragyne has only weak opiod effects, it has been suggest that also 7-hydroxymitragynine contributes to the plant properties. Serotonergic and adrenergic pathways have also been involved in the effects of mitragynine, mostly due to its broad affinity to different receptors [ 93 ]. Indeed, the pharmacological mechanisms responsible for stimulant activity are yet to be clearly established. Some people find this sensations anxiogenic rather than pleasant. At higher doses, experiences describe it as more sedative and analgesic: users prefer to be less sensitive to physical or emotional pain, to feel and look calm, and to have a general feeling of comfortable pleasure [ 83 ].
Users reported also a variety of less explored side-effects; including nausea, constipation, sleep problems, temporary erectile dysfunction, itching, and sweating and hyperpigmentation and tremor and anorexia and weight loss in long term consumption. Some others describe hair loss, probably related to a regular daily use of Kratom. Withdrawal symptoms are also common, including muscle aches, irritability, mood disturbances, runny nose, diarrhoea.
Adverse effects and intoxications cases across various countries have also been reported, including liver toxicity, seizure, and coma, reports of patients suffering from intrahepatic cholestasis after two weeks of kratom use, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and hypothyroidism. Evidence also suggests that Kratom might be a deadly substance when mixed with other compounds [ 499495 - 98 ]. The Trichocereus family includes about 40 cactecee plants. The historical use is linked to the hallucinogenic content of mescaline, a phenethylamine structurally different from other major psychedelic drugs such as LSD, psilocibine, and DMT [ ].
Mescaline is also the principal psychedelic alkaloid of another small, spineless cactus native to Mexico, Lophophora williamsii or peyote [ ].List of hallucinogenic herbs
email: [email protected] - phone:(777) 258-1443 x 6847
List of psychoactive plants