Is there thc in leaves

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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. Cannabis research has historically focused on the most prevalent cannabinoids. However, extracts with a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites may have increased efficacy and decreased adverse effects compared to cannabinoids in isolation.

This study is the first attempt to profile secondary metabolites groups in individual plant parts comprehensively. We profiled 14 cannabinoids, 47 terpenoids 29 monoterpenoids, 15 sesquiterpenoids, and 3 triterpenoids3 sterols, and 7 flavonoids in cannabis flowers, leaves, stem barks, and roots in three chemovars available. Cannabis inflorescence was characterized by cannabinoids Cannabis is a complex herbal medicine containing several classes of secondary metabolites, including at least cannabinoids, terpenoids including 61 monoterpenes, 52 sesquiterpenoids, and 5 triterpenoids26 flavonoids, and 11 steroids among identified compounds 123456.

The postulated biosynthetic pathways for these metabolite groups 78 are outlined in Fig. Cannabis has attracted a new wave of interest for its broad medicinal applications as 1 an analgesic, potentially as an adjunct to or substitute for opiates in the treatment of chronic pain 9and 2 an appetite stimulant and digestive aid 10among others. As such, female flower tops are harvested while other parts are often discarded by growers This is a potentially unnecessary waste. As an ancient medicine in various cultures, each part of the cannabis plant has been historically indicated with a wide range of applications relating mostly to painkilling, inflammation releasing, and mental illness treatment 303132 Biosynthesis pathways of cannabinoid, terpenoids, sterols, and flavonoids 78.

Is there thc in leaves

Cannabinoids and terpenoids are produced and stored in the secretory cells of glandular trichomes, which are found in the aerial parts of cannabis plants and are especially dense on the top surfaces of seedless female flowers Flavonoids in cannabis, mainly flavones luteolin, apigenin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin and flavonols quercetin and kaempferolexist as free aglycones or as conjugated O -glycosides or C -glycosides 752, The phenylpropanoid pathway produces p -coumaroyl-CoA from phenylalanine.

In conjunction with three molecules of malonyl-CoA, p -coumaroyl-CoA produces naringenin, which is the substrate for flavone and flavonol biosynthesis 8 Terpenoids may directly elicit physiological effects or modulate cannabinoid responses Flavonoids share a wide range of biological effects with cannabinoids and terpenoids that include anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective properties One of the triterpenoids identified in cannabis root, friedelin, contains anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, estrogenic, anti-cancer, and liver protectant properties Plant sterols may reduce plasma cholesterol levels 40414243 One recent study showed that whole plant extracts are more beneficial than pure CBD for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in mice Another preclinical study has shown that a botanical cannabis preparation was more effective than pure THC in producing antitumor responses in vitro However, the increased potency was attributable to compounds other than the five most abundant terpenes in the preparation The literature suggests that a wider range of bioactive compounds should be included when examining the beneficial medicinal properties of botanical cannabis preparations.

The aim of this study is to leverage a comprehensive investigation of chemical profiles in each plant part. The metabolites of the study included 14 cannabinoids, 47 terpenoids 29 monoterpenoids, 15 sesquiterpenoids, and 3 triterpenoids3 sterols, and 7 flavonoids. This multipart study included the development of quantitative methods using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy LC-MS for cannabinoids, liquid chromatography coupled with a standard ultraviolet detector and mass spectroscopy LC-UV-MS for flavonoids, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy GC-MS for terpenoids and sterols.

Relevant compounds were selected based on their pharmacological activities 58or use in other cannabis classification studies 484950 The methods were then employed for generating the chemical profiles of the inflorescences, leaves, stem barks, and roots of three selected cannabis chemovars Fig. The yield of total cannabinoids averaged The minimization of analyte loss using the manual grinder is attributed to the fact that resin adheres to the blades and plastic housing surface of a plastic blender during high-speed pulverization Supplementary Fig.

The regression curves were found to be visibly linear, and the slope and coefficient of determination were calculated Supplementary Table 1. The correlation coefficients for all 14 cannabinoids were above 0. The limit of detection LOD was between 0. Repeatability was between 0. Intermediate precision was between 1. The matrix effect and extraction efficiency are listed in Supplementary Table 3. The matrix effect for all three levels was between Compared to their neutral forms, cannabinoid acids had higher degradation during sonication. Method robustness was verified using an alternate chromatographic column and a second LC-MS instrument.

Is there thc in leaves

Chromatograms for cannabinoids, mono- and sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, and triterpenoids. Terpenoids corresponded to the labeled are listed in e. Mass spectrometry was used for flavonoid identification and UV detector was used for flavonoid quantification. The correlation coefficients for all 44 terpenoids were above 0. LOD were between 0.

Intermediate precision was between 0. Robustness was evaluated by two analysts operating on the same machine by testing twelve replicate cannabis samples. The correlation coefficients for all seven compounds were greater than 0.

Is there thc in leaves

Trueness, determined by recovery, for seven flavonoids by acid hydrolysis were between Recovery for luteolin The intermediate precision calculated from twelve replicates of leaf samples ranged between 1. The correlation coefficients for all 6 compounds were between 0. Intermediate precision for 9 replicates was between 1. Cannabinoid content decreased from inflorescences to leaves, stem barks, and roots Fig. Roots contained between 0. Stem barks contained between 0.

Is there thc in leaves

Differences may be caused by variations in chemovar and the position where the sample was taken next to root. Cannabinoids quantified in cannabis leaf and inflorescence are shown in Fig. Total cannabinoids quantified in leaves were between 1.

Total cannabinoids quantified in inflorescence were between Secondary metabolites profiling in cannabis roots, stem barks, leaves, and inflorescences. Terpenoids labelled by their s are listed in Fig. Cannabinoids mainly exist in the plant as carboxylic acids and are decarboxylated into neutral forms over time - heat or light exposure expedites decarboxylation CBN was detected at less than 0.

It is also reported to have therapeutic potential for treating nausea and vomiting Total THC and total CBD ratio in the leaves of the intermediate type chemovar was consistent with that in the inflorescence, which is consistent with conclusions from other studies 6263 Notably, the ratio of total CBC to total THC was ten times higher in leaves than in inflorescence for all three chemovars. Mono- and sesquiterpenoids were not detected in stem barks or roots Fig. Total mono- and sesquiterpenoids ranged from 0.

The ratios of major terpenoids relative to total terpenoids in the inflorescence Supplementary Table 13agreed with values reported in a compiled study Limonene ranged between 3. Linalool ranged between 2. All mono- and sesquiterpenoid ratios were consistent with ly reported essential oil contents in fresh plant material between The ratios of individual terpenoids in the leaf were comparable to those in inflorescence for all three chemovars Supplementary Fig.

For terpenoids whose analytical standards were unavailable for sourcing, identification was performed using its mass spectrum, and semi-quantification was performed using individual response area relative to the total response area of all terpenoid peaks using GC-FID, where the response factor was taken as one 526566 The presence of more hydroxylated terpenoids in Chemovar III does not fit its reported classification as C. For medicinal research and applications, cannabis chemovars should be identified by their chemical fingerprints, which are more reliable than their names 4849 A total of twenty-six flavonoids have been identified in cannabis plants, which are methylated and prenylated aglycones or conjugated O -glycosides or C -glycosides of orientin, vitexin, isovitexin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and apigenin 67 In this study, total flavonoid content was expressed as the sum of these seven flavonoids after acid hydrolysis.

Flavonoids were not detected in roots, and stem barks, less detected in the inflorescence 0. Flavonoid content also varied between chemovars. Total flavonoid content in inflorescence was ificantly higher in Chemovar III 0. The total flavonoid content in leaves was higher in Chemovar II 0. Vitexin was found to be the most abundant flavonoid, ranging from 0.

Orientin content ranged from 0. The analyzed isovitexin and luteolin contents were lower than other studies 7 Apigenin content ranged from 0. Neither quercetin nor kaempferol was found in leaf samples — these are different from a study 7 that reported 0. The inconsistency of reported values may be caused by differences in plant age and chemovar varieties. Unlike cannabinoid accumulation, individual and total flavonoid content decreases as the plants age 7. Orientin, vitexin, and their glucosides were reported to have value in discriminating cannabis subspecies Cannflavin A and B are also notable flavonoids with medicinal potential identified in cannabis However, due to the unavailability of reference standards at the time, they were not included in this study.

The ratio of three sterols was consistent with a study on cannabis roots Campesterol content ranged between 0. Stigmasterol had the lowest concentration in roots and stem barks at 0. Friedelin is the most prominent triterpenoid in cannabis and is concentrated in the stem barks and roots 5 Fig. It ranged from 0. The were ificantly higher than the 0. Epifriedelanol was found to range from 0. Neither friedelin nor epifriedelanol was found in leaf samples. To bridge traditional medicine and modern evidence-based medicine, biochemically active compounds must be identified, and their molecular mechanisms determined through preclinical and clinical studies.

The secondary metabolites quantified in each part of cannabis are summarized in Supplementary Table Since concentrations above 0. For example, the leaves of Chemovar III contain 0.

Is there thc in leaves

In comparison, ginkgo leaves, which are used for ginkgo extract and are among the best sources of flavonoids, contains 0. The stem bark and root are sources of triterpenoids and sterols. For example, friedelin is found in the leaves of Azima tetracantha Lam. In comparison, dried cannabis roots and stem barks contain between 0.

Is there thc in leaves

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Secondary Metabolites Profiled in Cannabis Inflorescences, Leaves, Stem Barks, and Roots for Medicinal Purposes